Rules of Estrangement

Why Adult Children Cut Ties & How to Heal the Conflict

About the Book

A guide for parents whose adult children have cut off contact that reveals the hidden logic of estrangement, explores its cultural causes, and offers practical advice for parents trying to reestablish contact with their adult children.

“Finally, here’s a hopeful, comprehensive, and compassionate guide to navigating one of the most painful experiences for parents and their adult children alike.”—Lori Gottlieb, psychotherapist and New York Times bestselling author of Maybe You Should Talk to Someone

Labeled a silent epidemic by a growing number of therapists and researchers, estrangement is one of the most disorienting and painful experiences of a parent's life. Popular opinion typically tells a one-sided story of parents who got what they deserved or overly entitled adult children who wrongly blame their parents. However, the reasons for estrangement are far more complex and varied. As a result of rising rates of individualism, an increasing cultural emphasis on happiness, growing economic insecurity, and a historically recent perception that parents are obstacles to personal growth, many parents find themselves forever shut out of the lives of their adult children and grandchildren.

As a trusted psychologist whose own daughter cut off contact for several years and eventually reconciled, Dr. Joshua Coleman is uniquely qualified to guide parents in navigating these fraught interactions. He helps to alleviate the ongoing feelings of shame, hurt, guilt, and sorrow that commonly attend these dynamics. By placing estrangement into a cultural context, Dr. Coleman helps parents better understand the mindset of their adult children and teaches them how to implement the strategies for reconciliation and healing that he has seen work in his forty years of practice. Rules of Estrangement gives parents the language and the emotional tools to engage in meaningful conversation with their child, the framework to cultivate a healthy relationship moving forward, and the ability to move on if reconciliation is no longer possible.

While estrangement is a complex and tender topic, Dr. Coleman's insightful approach is based on empathy and understanding for both the parent and the adult child.
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Listen to a sample from Rules of Estrangement

Praise for Rules of Estrangement

“Finally, here’s a hopeful, comprehensive, and compassionate guide to navigating one of the most painful experiences for parents and their adult children alike. Rules of Estrangement candidly addresses parental estrangement from every conceivable angle, steering readers away from shame and blame to a place of newfound understanding and empowerment. I’ve seen many parents and adult children grappling with these issues, and this is exactly the book they have all been waiting for. I will be recommending it widely.”—Lori Gottlieb, psychotherapist and New York Times bestselling author of Maybe You Should Talk to Someone

“A very thoughtful book filled with great wisdom and care. Over Dr. Coleman’s years of practice, as well as his own personal journey, he has developed a deep appreciation for how to help parents see their relationship with their children through the child’s eyes. It is through that process of compassionate perspective taking that a healing conversation can begin.”—Amy J. L. Baker, PhD, author of Adult Children of Parental Alienation Syndrome

“Coleman addresses what historians see as a strange paradox: Even as more adult children view their parents as friends rather than mere obligations, psychologists report seeing a wave of parents who have been rejected by their adult children. Coleman explores the socioeconomic and cultural changes that inflate both our expectations and our disappointments in family life, offering calming advice on ways that estranged families can recover or move on.”—Stephanie Coontz, author of The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap

“With the authority and wisdom that comes from both a firm grounding in history, sociology, and, especially, clinical practice, Joshua Coleman provides compassionate and useful advice to parents and their adult children as they try to navigate the minefield of past family experience.  His work with families is engaging, informative, exceedingly helpful.”—Frank Furstenberg, Zellerbach Family Professor of Sociology, emeritus, University of Pennsylvania

Rules of Estrangement is a must-read guide for any parent in a troubled relationship with their adult child. But it is also so much more—a sharp social and philosophical analysis of what it means to be part of a family in our strange cultural moment and a road map for parents everywhere to strengthen and future-proof their relationships with their children.”—Ruth Whippman, author of America the Anxious

“Joshua Coleman has provided a beautifully written book that describes painful disruptions in relationships between parents and their adult children. His wise and authoritative strategies and specific tips will prove to be essential for both younger and older generations and for clinicians who attempt to foster hope and relationship repair.”—Carolyn and Philip Cowan, emeritus psychology professors at UC Berkeley

“I have, for many years, recommended people to go see Dr. Coleman, but until I read this book, I don't think I ever knew the extraordinary range of his gifts. Yes, there are many sad stories in this book—but there are also fantastic stories of reconciliation and personal renewal. It's inspirational.”—Pepper Schwartz, PhD, sociologist and psychology expert on Married at First Sight
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Rules of Estrangement

Chapter 1

Can I Save the Relationship with My Estranged Child?

Sometimes parents do very little to cause an estrangement. And sometimes they do a lot . . .

Ralph wanted my help reconciling with his estranged son, but he didn’t like my advice. He didn’t believe that his son’s view of him, however harsh, might have a little truth to it. In reality, I thought his son’s assessment was more than a little true: Ralph was a gruff, self-centered Modesto developer who took his own opinions way too seriously. He expected a level of gratitude and deference from his son that was never going to happen. Ever. Especially challenging was Ralph’s belief that the amount of financial help he’d provided his son afforded him the right to dictate the terms of the relationship.

Frank told me that he had grown up feeling controlled and dominated by his father. Among other things, Ralph was critical of Frank’s desire to get an undergraduate degree in the humanities; he threatened to cut off his college funding if Frank didn’t study something practical that could, as he put it, “actually support a family.” Frank’s temperament was more like his mother’s—bookish, reclusive, drawn to the arts. While he ended up getting a BS in business, he went back to school for an MA in English lit shortly after. He had worked hard in his own therapy to stand up to his father’s demands for time and availability. He’d also made it clear to his dad that there was no way he was going to give back an inch of that hard-won territory.

In my initial meeting with Frank he described feeling close to his mother but a constant disappointment to his father. It wasn’t until he got into therapy that he began to connect his feelings of unworthiness to his relationship with his dad. “I just don’t want to walk around feeling like that anymore. It sucks. I’m through with him treating me like that person. I feel a lot less stressed since I’ve cut off contact with him. I’m fine having a relationship with my mom, but she pretty much does whatever he says. You’ve met my father, so you probably get it.”

I got it.

My work with estranged families typically takes place over two to five sessions. Most of the time parents contact me because they have no contact with their adult child and want strategies to pursue reconciliation. In our initial meeting, I ask about their own childhood history, so I can learn about experiences they may be repeating or that may continue to influence them. I also take a thorough developmental history of their adult child from the parent’s perspective, which includes the child’s academic performance, social life, drug and alcohol use or abuse, prior or current therapy, learning disabilities, temperament, and psychiatric issues. While I don’t expect parents to be diagnosticians, I want to gain a sense of how they understand their child’s strengths, vulnerabilities, temperament, level of insight, and self-reflection.

Of course the parent’s view is sometimes colored by the limitations imposed by their own childhood history, their history of interactions with the child, and whatever other vulnerabilities or limitations they bring to the table. So a parent might wrongly assert that his or her adult child is overly sensitive or defensive because they can’t see how much defensiveness they provoke.

In my initial meeting I suggested that Ralph consider making amends to his son. I stressed that Frank himself had indicated that the relationship wouldn’t move forward unless his father could more deeply address his feelings about their relationship. It was clear that since childhood, Frank had felt controlled or criticized by his father.

“I have nothing to apologize for,” Ralph said, annoyed. “He went to a good school and didn’t have to pay a dime for it. I bought him and his wife a house; she won’t even talk to me. I have money set aside so my grandchildren will have their college paid for. And now I’m not even allowed to see them. What exactly am I supposed to be sorry for again? I’ve got an idea: How about he apologizes to me for cussing me out the last time I was there?”

“Sounds like you did do a lot for him,” I said. “I agree.” And I did agree. But the exchange rate on parental investment has weakened over the past half century. Parents, for better or worse, can no longer demand contact as a return on time and money spent. Like many parents, Frank wasn’t factoring that into his expectations.

Ralph’s wife, Rachel, was small, quiet, and unbearably sad. I asked for her thoughts about the estrangement.

“Oh . . . ,” she said slowly, as though gathering strength to respond, “I don’t know. I just want this to end. My grandbabies, I don’t know what they think, and you know, I just miss them so much. This isn’t fair to them. He and his dad, they’re probably more similar than different.” Small smile. “Both a little too pigheaded for their own good.”

I could see how some people would feel intimidated by Ralph. He was a big guy, used to getting his own way and to having people agree with him. His size, bluster, and arrogance would probably be daunting to a spouse, let alone a child. But I also recognized that he, like many estranged parents, was caught in a generational trap not of his own making.

“You know what?’ he said when I asked him about his childhood. “Nobody gave me anything growing up. My old man used to beat my ass all the time. Is he calling me up and saying, ‘Aww, son, I’m so sorry for beating your ass all the time. What was that like for you?’ He’s an ornery sonofabitch, but we still go see him and my mom ’cause that’s what family does.”

Rachel smiled at me apologetically.

“He also made me who I am today, so I kind of give the old man credit, as big of a dick as he was. When I’m in a meeting with a bunch of construction workers and I’m on the phone with some asshole who’s holding up my building permits, even though I’ve already sent them everything for the tenth time, could they give a shit about what I’m feeling? So I just don’t see how that’s supposed to make things any better.”

“I understand. I think a lot of the parents that I work with feel the same way,” I said. “But it seems like the way you’ve been doing it isn’t getting you what you want. Do I have that right?”

“Yep,” he said begrudgingly.

“So I don’t think there’s a big chance of your seeing him or your grandchildren unless we can help you do it differently. Your son made that pretty clear to me in my individual session with him.”

From my many years of experience, I can stay that how a parent responds to this particular recommendation—that they try to empathize with the child’s complaints or perceptions, however at odds these are with their own—is crucial: it often determines whether they ever see their children or grandchildren again.

“Well, I’m not apologizing to him. No way. For what?”

Rachel looked at him wearily. I could tell this was an old, tired interaction for her: she pleads with him to take a softer, less defensive approach and he aggressively shoots her down. In my experience with married couples, mothers are often willing to keep trying long after their husbands have stopped. I have worked with many desperately grieving mothers who said some version of this: “My life has no meaning without my children and grandchildren in it, so why go on living?” This reality causes them to keep trying sometimes well past the point of it being good for anyone. And sometimes they keep trying because they know that the child needs something different in order to reconcile.

A mother’s desire to persevere may result from the fact that women are still held to a higher standard of responsibility for family relationships than are men. As a result, they have a much harder time letting themselves off the hook. Fathers are also deeply wounded by estrangements, but perhaps due to their roles being less socially prescribed, their identities may not suffer as intensely. And, unlike mothers, they may believe that giving up on reconciliation is an expression of pride or masculinity, rather than selfishness.

In Ralph’s case, I also knew that his aggression and gruff bearing insulated him against his feelings of sadness and shame about his son’s rejection.

“It’s not exactly that you have to apologize,” I tried again. “It’s more like this: you’re saying that you didn’t know when you were raising him that you hurt him. And now you do. Now you wish you’d communicated differently. You don’t have to say that you’re a bad person or a bad father. Just that your behavior had an effect on him that wasn’t your desire.”

Rachel looked at her husband hopefully, waiting to see if this new approach was getting any purchase. “That seems like a good way to put it,” she said.

But Ralph wasn’t going to relent. Instead he seemed to grow hardened. “I did want him to be afraid of me: I wanted him to toughen up. He was such a whiny little mama’s boy.”

About the Author

Joshua Coleman, PhD
Joshua Coleman, PhD, is a psychologist in private practice and Senior Fellow with the Council on Contemporary Families. A frequent guest on NPR and Today, his advice has also appeared in The New York Times, The Atlantic, the Wall Street Journal, CNN, Chicago Tribune and other publications. A popular conference speaker, he has given talks to the faculties at Harvard, the Weill Cornell Department of Psychiatry and other academic institutions. Dr. Coleman is co-editor with historian Stephanie Coontz of seven online volumes of Unconventional Wisdom: News You Can Use: a compendium of noteworthy research on the contemporary family. He is the father of three adult children, has a teenage grandson and lives with his wife in the San Francisco Bay Area. He also writes music for television which has appeared on Keeping Up With the Kardashians, Lethal Weapon, Chicago Fire, Chicago PD, Longmire, Shameless, RuPaul's Drag Race, and many other shows. More by Joshua Coleman, PhD
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